Gastrointestinal Cancer Care at Acıbadem Healthcare Group - ACIBADEM
Gastrointestinal Cancer Care at Acıbadem Healthcare Group

Gastrointestinal Cancer Care at Acıbadem Healthcare Group

Gastrointestinal cancer is a multifaceted challenge. It encompasses a spectrum of malignancies that affect the digestive system, from the esophagus to the anus. Understanding its nuances and navigating its complexities is paramount to effective management.

What is gastrointestinal cancer?

Gastrointestinal cancer is a group of malignancies that affect the digestive system. It includes the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small intestine, colon, rectum, and anus. These cancers arise from the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They can vary widely in symptoms, progression, and treatment options. Understanding the nature of GI cancers is critical for early detection and effective treatment.

What are the symptoms of GI cancer?

Symptoms of GI cancer can be subtle and often resemble those of less serious conditions. Common symptoms are;

  • persistent abdominal pain that does not go away and is often severe;
  • changes in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation, or changes in the consistency of the stool;
  • unexplained weight loss;
  • significant and unintentional weight loss;
  • loss of appetite leading to weight loss and malnutrition;
  • persistent fatigue that does not improve with rest;
  • blood in the stool or vomit indicating possible bleeding within the GI tract;
  • difficulty swallowing, especially in cancers of the esophagus.

It is important to consult a healthcare professional if any of these symptoms persist. Early detection can significantly improve treatment outcomes.

How is gastrointestinal cancer diagnosed?

The diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and various diagnostic tests:


This procedure uses a flexible tube with a camera. It examines the inside of the GI tract. It can help detect abnormalities and allow for tissue biopsy.

At Acıbadem Healthcare Group, several types of endoscopic procedures are used to diagnose GI cancers;

  • Upper endoscopy (EGD) to examine the esophagus, stomach and duodenum,
  • Colonoscopy to examine the colon and rectum,
  • Sigmoidoscopy to examine the lower colon and rectum,
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for detailed imaging of the digestive tract and surrounding structures,
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for diagnosing and treating diseases of the bile ducts and pancreas,
  • Capsule endoscopy to visualize the small intestine using a swallowable camera.

Imaging Tests

Techniques such as CT, MRI, and PET scans provide detailed images of internal organs. They help identify tumors and determine their size and spread.


A sample of tissue is taken from the suspicious area and examined under a microscope. It confirms the presence of cancer cells.

Blood Tests

Certain blood tests can detect markers of cancer or help assess organ function.

What are the types of gastrointestinal cancer?

Gastrointestinal cancers encompass a spectrum of diseases. Each of these is closely linked to specific regions of the digestive system. They require tailored diagnostic and treatment approaches:

Esophageal Cancer

This malignancy arises in the esophagus, the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Esophageal cancer presents with symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and unintentional weight loss.

Stomach Cancer

This type of cancer affects the lining of the stomach. Symptoms can include abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, and unexplained weight loss. Advanced stages of stomach cancer can lead to bleeding, obstruction, and difficulty swallowing.

Liver Cancer

Liver cancer includes several types, with hepatocellular carcinoma being the most common. It originates in liver cells and is often associated with chronic liver diseases. Chronic liver diseases are hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and fatty liver disease. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, swelling, jaundice, and unexplained weight loss.

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer develops in the pancreas, an organ responsible for producing digestive enzymes and insulin. It is notoriously difficult to diagnose early due to its subtle symptoms. Symptoms are abdominal pain, jaundice, unexplained weight loss, and digestive problems.

Gallbladder Cancer

The gallbladder is a small organ that stores bile produced by the liver. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, and unexplained weight loss. Gallbladder cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage because of its nonspecific symptoms.

Cancer of the Small Intestine

Cancer of the small intestine is relatively rare compared to other gastrointestinal cancers. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, and unexplained weight loss. Diagnosis can be challenging due to the length and limited accessibility of the small intestine.

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer refers to cancers of the colon or rectum, both parts of the large intestine. It is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Symptoms may include changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, abdominal discomfort, and unintentional weight loss.

Anal Cancer

This type of cancer develops in the tissues of the anus, the opening at the end of the digestive tract. Symptoms may include anal pain, itching, bleeding, and changes in bowel habits. Anal cancer is relatively rare but can be effectively treated, especially if diagnosed early through routine screening.

Each type of GI cancer has unique characteristics and requires tailored treatment approaches.

How Are Gastrointestinal Cancers Treated?

Treatment options for gastrointestinal cancers are varied and depend on several factors. These factors are the types, locations, and stages of the cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health.


Often the primary treatment for gastrointestinal cancers, surgery involves removing the tumor and surrounding healthy tissue. The goal is to remove as much cancerous tissue as possible while preserving organ function. Minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic surgery, may be used to minimize postoperative complications and speed recovery.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells or shrink tumors. It can be delivered externally through a machine (external beam radiation) or internally through radioactive implants (brachytherapy). Radiation therapy is often used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy to improve outcomes, especially for locally advanced or inoperable tumors.


Chemotherapy uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth and division. These drugs may be given orally or intravenously and may be given before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) to shrink tumors, after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) to eradicate remaining cancer cells, or as palliative treatment for advanced disease. Chemotherapy regimens are tailored based on the specific type of GI cancer and the patient’s overall health.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy drugs are designed to selectively attack cancer cells by interfering with specific molecular pathways involved in tumor growth and survival. Unlike chemotherapy, which can affect healthy cells, targeted therapy drugs typically have fewer side effects. Examples of targeted therapy drugs for gastrointestinal cancers include monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and angiogenesis inhibitors.


Immunotherapy harnesses the power of the body’s immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. It works by stimulating the immune system or by removing barriers that prevent it from effectively attacking cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have shown promising results in certain gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal and gastric cancers.

Palliative Care

Palliative care focuses on relieving symptoms, managing side effects, and improving the quality of life. It involves a multidisciplinary approach that addresses physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. Palliative care may include pain management, symptom control, nutritional support, psychosocial counseling, and end-of-life care planning. It aims to optimize comfort and well-being throughout the disease.

What is a Gastrointestinal Oncology Unit?

A gastrointestinal oncology unit is a specialized medical department. It focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and research of gastrointestinal cancers. These units are equipped with advanced diagnostic tools and staffed by a multidisciplinary team of specialists. The unit includes oncologists, surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists. The goal of a gastrointestinal oncology unit is to provide comprehensive and personalized care.

Why Acıbadem Healthcare Group?

Acıbadem Healthcare Group stands out for its exceptional standards of cancer care, highlighted by its dedicated GI Oncology Unit. Patients choose Acıbadem Healthcare Group for their gastrointestinal (GI) cancer treatment for several compelling reasons:

Specialized Expertise

Acıbadem Healthcare Group has a team of highly qualified specialists. Our specialists are renowned for their expertise in treating a wide range of GI cancers. These specialists have extensive experience and knowledge. They ensure that patients receive comprehensive and personalized care tailored to their specific needs.

Cutting-Edge Technology

The hospital integrates state-of-the-art diagnostic and treatment technologies into its practice. It facilitates precise diagnosis and effective treatment strategies. Acıbadem Healthcare Group uses innovative technology to optimize patient outcomes.

Holistic Approach to Care

Acıbadem Healthcare Group emphasizes a holistic approach to cancer care. With a focus on patient well-being, the hospital’s multidisciplinary team works closely together. They address all aspects of the patient’s journey. They provide comprehensive support and guidance every step of the way.

Innovative Treatment Options

Acıbadem Healthcare Group offers a wide range of innovative treatment options. These are minimally invasive surgical techniques, targeted therapies, and personalized medicine approaches. These cutting-edge treatments aim to maximize efficacy while minimizing side effects. These treatments give patients the best chance of a successful outcome.

Commitment to Research and Development

Acıbadem Healthcare Group remains at the forefront of gastrointestinal cancer research and development, actively contributing to the advancement of scientific knowledge and treatment options. Through ongoing research initiatives, the hospital continually strives to improve the understanding and treatment outcomes for patients with GI cancers, ensuring that they benefit from the latest medical advances and breakthroughs.

Gastrointestinal cancers are a complex group of cancers. They require specialized care and advanced treatment options. Understanding the symptoms, diagnostic methods, types, and treatments of GI cancer is critical. Facilities like Acıbadem Healthcare Group, with specialized gastrointestinal oncology units, are equipped. To provide the comprehensive care is necessary to effectively manage and treat GI cancers. By staying informed, patients can navigate their cancer journey with greater confidence and support. Choosing a reputable facility like Acıbadem Healthcare Group can provide patients with the expertise and comprehensive care needed to combat this challenging disease.