Obesity can be defined as an excessive accumulation of fat tissues that affects negatively general health. According to global data, the incidence of obesity has tripled in 50 years. Currently, nearly 35% of all adults have overweight, and 23% are considered obese. It is not just a cosmetic issue but a medical problem, as excessive weight increases the risk of developing other serious diseases. Once adipose tissue has been accumulated in the body, it excretes hormones and chemicals that increase appetite, elevate the limits of feeling full and cause obesity to progress further. Therefore, after a certain point, it might be difficult to solve the problem without help. The good news is that obesity is preventable, and it is treatable when the patient is motivated and seeks a qualified medical team.
In brief, overweight and obesity are caused by the excessive intake of calories. It means that the calories you consume are more than the calories you expend. The surplus amount of calories is stored as body fat. In other words, anyone who eats too much and moves too little is at risk of developing overweight and obesity. However, some genetic causes, medical conditions like hypothyroidism, and medications like anti-seizure drugs might also contribute to weight gain.
Excess weight gain is usually influenced by multiple behavioral, environmental and genetic factors. A few of them are:
Body mass index (BMI) is a simple and commonly used tool for the evaluation of obesity. It considers the patient’s weight and height. To calculate your BMI, you can divide your weight in kilograms by your height in meters, then divide the result by your height again. The final result is matched to a BMI classification chart as follows:
Classification of Obesity According to the Body Mass Index
|BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m²||Underweight|
|BMI between 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m²||Normal (healthy weight)|
|BMI between 25 – 29.9 kg/m²||Overweight|
|BMI between 30 – 34.9 kg/m²||Class I Obesity|
|BMI between 35 – 39.9 kg/m²||Class II Obesity|
|BMI over 40 kg/m²||Class III Obesity (Morbid obesity)|
Overweight and obesity can bring serious health consequences. Along with potential digestive problems, it may lead to high levels of cholesterol and blood pressure, paving the way to heart diseases and stroke. Excessive weight puts extra pressure on the joints, causing musculoskeletal disorders, especially osteoarthritis. Raised BMI is a risk factor for various non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea and some types of cancer. Moreover, it is associated with decreased quality of life, depression, anxiety and social isolation.
You can follow a moderate exercise routine or take regular walks with your pet. Prepare your meals at home and consume more plant-based foods. Avoid chronic stress and sleep at least 7-8 hours every night. If all these do not help to maintain a healthy weight, contact a comprehensive obesity center where a team of professionals can assess your case and prepare a personal weight-loss program to achieve your goals.
Children and adults should be screened with BMI evaluation at least once a year. In case of rising values, the physician may recommend diet and exercise to avoid further weight gain.
BMI is a good starting point in weight assessment. However, it does not consider important factors such as age, gender, muscular mass, or body fat distribution. For the effective diagnosis and treatment of obesity, it is important to know where fat accumulates in the body. Obesity can generally be separated into two categories – apple and pear-shaped. In apple-type obesity, fat accumulates in the belly, whereas in pear-shaped obesity, fat accumulates around the hips. Fat stored around the waist, also called abdominal fat, is more likely to increase the risk of developing dangerous health problems, especially cardiac disease or diabetes. Men with a waistline of more than 94 cm are considered to have increased risk, while waistlines over 102 cm are seen as high risk. In women, a waistline above 80 cm is associated with increased risk and above 88 cm means high risk.
Diagnosing obesity considers the health history and current health status of the patient. A wide range of factors helps to determine an effective treatment plan. That is why we recommend an expert consultation for better outcomes.
Obesity is a challenging and complex disease that needs comprehensive treatment by an experienced medical team. The treatment process is determined individually for each patient, and it might involve:
These are quick and reversible weight loss techniques performed without incisions or hospital stay. They are most effective in patients with a BMI of 27-35 who are still not appropriate for obesity surgery but cannot manage their weight by diet and sports. At Acibadem Obesity Clinic, we perform the following non-invasive techniques:
Gastric botox and Gastric Balloon have nearly similar results. Six months after the procedure, the average weight loss is 7% – 15% total body weight. It could be more or less, depending on the patient’s motivation to stick to the recommended lifestyle changes. These methods are not suitable for patients with BMI over 40 who need to lose more bodyweight. Bariatric surgery may offer a solution in these cases.
Bariatric surgery, also called obesity surgery and weight-loss surgery, is a treatment for morbid obesity. When it is performed to deal with a chronic condition like diabetes, it is called metabolic surgery. The operation makes effective changes in the digestive system to assist in weight loss. Bariatric surgery uses different techniques to reduce the stomach volume or reducing the absorption surface of nutrients from the intestines, or a combination of both.
Bariatric surgery may be an option for patients with BMI over 40 when diet and exercise alone have not worked. It may be applied to patients with BMI over 35 who have one or more weight-related health problems, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, etc. Metabolic surgery should also be considered to be an option to treat T2D in patients with class I obesity (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 ) and inadequately controlled hyperglycemia despite optimal medical treatment by either oral or injectable medications (including insulin).There are also some contraindications for bariatric surgery, like serious heart disorders, current drug or alcohol dependence, cancer treatment, mental disorders, and pregnancy. Candidates for obesity surgery must be aware that they will have to make permanent lifestyle changes to achieve and sustain good results.
There are different procedures, and which one will be applied is determined according to the patient’s condition and expected results. At Acibadem Obesity Clinic, surgical options include:
Patients undergoing bariatric surgery should stick to a regular diet and exercise program. Therefore, the long-term success of obesity treatment depends strongly on the patient’s motivation to make life-long changes.
Patients undergoing obesity surgery can expect to lose about 60%-80% of their excess body weight within two years after the operation. These results are permanent if the patient follows the recommended program and healthy lifestyle habits. An average of 80-90% of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery achieve their weight-loss goals.
Along with weight loss, obesity surgery provides significant improvement in many medical conditions:
Obesity surgery can be a lifesaving solution for people with severe obesity. However, it is a major surgery that carries certain risks and side effects, such as blood clots, infections and bleeding. All these are manageable conditions. Besides, the long-term advantages of bariatric surgery exceed potential risks. At Acibadem Obesity Clinic, we perform an extensive evaluation with a multidisciplinary team of experts, to ensure that each patient receives the most suitable medical procedure. Bariatric surgery is generally safe when performed in an experienced centre able to manage potential complications.
Recently, patients from all over the world have been travelling for bariatric surgery in Turkiye. They are attracted by the opportunity to receive obesity treatment immediately, at an affordable price, with world-class results. Acibadem Obesity Center stands out among healthcare facilities for its: